Category Information

Flying probe in-circuit testing
Information

Flying probe in-circuit testing

Automatic Test Equipment, ATE Includes:In-Circuit test, ICTICT technology & techniquesFlying probeManufacturing defect analyzer, MDAICT fixturesICT design for testSee also:ATE basicsPCB inspection techniquesFunctional test, FATEDeveloping test strategyThe flying probe tester is a form of automated test equipment that has been in use since around 1986 when the first testers were introduced.

Read More
Information

Electronic Components

There are many components that can be used in electronic and radio circuits. For each type there are variants and these may enable them to be used in different ways.Passive componentsLearn about electronics online with our tutorials about passive components: resistors, capacitors, inducators, crystals and many more.
Read More
Information

What is Cellular Communications: Mobile Technology

Cellular / Mobile Telecommunications Basics Includes:What is cellular communicationsConcept of cellular systemMultiple access techniquesDuplex techniquesWhat& 39;s inside a cellphoneHandoverBackhaulMobile phone or cellular telecommunications technology has been in widespread use since the early 1980s.
Read More
Information

Ham Radio Contests and Contest Calendar

Contests & contesting includes:Contesting + calendarHints & tipsAmateur radio contests and contesting are an important feature in the activities of many radio hams. Contests and contesting add a further dimension to amateur radio operating, proving new challenges and interest to the hobby. Some radio hams even run their calendar by when the contests occur.
Read More
Information

Tropospheric Propagation

Tropospheric propagation tutorial includes:Tropospheric propagationTroposcatter communicationsOn frequencies above 30 MHz, it is found that the troposphere has an increasing effect on radio signals and radio communications systems. The radio signals are able to travel over greater distances than would be suggested by line of sight calculations.
Read More
Information

5G Technology: 5G mobile communications

5G Cellular Technology Tutorial Includes:5G Technology5G Requirements5G NR, New Radio5G NG NextGen Network5G waveforms & modulation5G multiple access scheme5G mmWaveMassive MIMO & beam-formingFrequency bands & channelsData channels: physical, transport & logicalThe 5G mobile communications system provides a far higher level of performance than the previous generations of mobile communications systems.
Read More
Information

What is a Logic Analyzer

Logic Analyzer Includes:Logic analyzer basicsHow to use a logic analyzerLogic analyzer specificationsProbesLogic analyzers are test instruments that are widely used for testing complex digital or logic circuits. They meet the need for users who need to be able to investigate and understand the operation of these circuits.
Read More
Information

Soldering SMD - how to solder SMT devices

SMT Soldering Includes:SMT soldering techniquesWave solderingReflow solderingSoldering BGAsWhat is solder paste & how to use itSee also:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsSurface mount technology, SMT with its associated surface mount devices, SMDs enable PCB assembly of electronic equipment to be far more efficient than had the old leaded technology been used.
Read More
Information

How to Write a CV: CV Preparation Guidance

Job Application Process Includes:Job Application ProcessCV preparationJob application letterOnline job applicationJob interviewInterview etiquetteWriting a CV, curriculum vitae is a key part of the process of applying for a job. This could be a permanent job, a contracting position or even consultancy work.
Read More
Information

Antennas & Propagation

One of the key areas of any radio system is that part where the signal is transfered from the transmitter to the receiver. This involves the use of antennas or aerials to radiate the signal as an electromagnetic wave, and then there is the way that the electromagntic wave travels or propagates between the transmitting antenna and the receiving one.
Read More
Information

USB Universal Serial Bus Tutorial

USB Universal Serial Bus Includes:USB introductionUSB standardsConnectors, pinouts & cablesData transfer & protocolUSB 3USB-CUSB hubsHow to buy best USB hubUSB, Universal Serial Bus is one of the most common interfaces for connecting a variety of peripherals to computers and providing relatively local and small levels of data transfer.
Read More
Information

What is Radio Propagation: RF propagation

Radio Propagation Tutorial Includes:Radio propagation basicsRadio signal path lossFree space propagation & path lossLink budgetRadio wave reflectionRadio wave refractionRadio wave diffractionMultipath propagationMultipath fadingRayleigh fadingThe atmosphere & radio propagationRadio signals can travel over vast distances.
Read More
Information

How to Buy the Best Microphone

Microphone Tutorial Includes:Microphone basicsMicrophone typesMicrophone specsMicrophone directionalityDynamic microphoneCondenser microphoneElectret microphoneRibbon microphoneCrystal / ceramic microphoneBoundary / PZM microphoneCarbon microphoneHow to buy best microphoneMicrophones for videoMicrophones for vocals/ singingMicrophones are used in many places and for many jobs.
Read More
Information

How to Buy the Best USB Charger: including USB multiport charger

USB Chargers Includes:Buy best USB chargerBuy best car USB chargerBattery charges for AAA, AA, C & D batteriesVirtually all small electronic devices from mobile phones to batteries, iPods, iPads, tablets, portable gaming machines and many more all need charging.In the early days of mobile phones and other similar equipment, each item needed its own battery charger and this resulted in everyone accumulating a huge number of different chargers which were not compatible with devices apart from the specific equipment for which they were supplied.
Read More
Information

Electronic & Radio Frequency Noise

Electrical and RF noise appears in all electronic and RF systems to a lesser or greater degree, and it can affect and limit the performance of many systemsElectrical and RF noise comes in many forms. It can be generated in many ways and noise can affect electronic and radio frequency, RF circuits and systems.
Read More
Information

Inductor Types

Inductors Includes:Inductor typesSpecificationsHow to select the right inductorFerritesFerrite beadsInductors of many types and styles are used throughout the electronics industry.Inductors perform a number of different styles of function within a circuit. Some types can be used for filtering and removing spikes on power lines, others are used within high performance filters.
Read More
Information

What is 3G UMTS: WCDMA Tutorial

3G UMTS includes:What is UMTSNetwork architectureRadio accessRadio interfaceFrequency bandsUMTS CDMAModulationData channelsUMTS TDDTD-SDCDMAHandoverUMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, is the 3G successor to the GSM family of standards including GPRS and EDGE.3G UMTS uses a totally different radio interface based around the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum as CDMA or Code Division Multiple Access.
Read More
Information

What is Soldering: technology & basics

Soldering Tutorial Includes:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsPCB solder resistSee also:SMT soldering techniques for PCB assemblySoldering is one of the key processes in the manufacture of electronic equipment.
Read More
Information

How to Design a PCB: printed circuit board layout

PCB Design Includes:PCB design basicsSchematic capture & drawingPCB layout / routingPCB design guidelinesPCB signal integrityKnowing how to design a printed circuit board, PCB is a key element of any electronic circuit design process.The PCB layout and design has a major impact on the way in which a circuit work, and therefore if the printed circuit board is designed in an effective way, then the circuit will perform more reliably and within its specification.
Read More
Information

Boundary Scan, JTAG, IEEE 1149 Tutorial

Boundary Scan JTAG Includes:What is Boundary Scan / JTAGBoundary scan description language, BSDLDesign for test with boundary scanJTAG Spec & IEEE 1149 StandardJTAG TAP & connectorIEEE 1149.6 (AC coupled JTAG)Compact JTAG cJTAG IEEE 1149.7IJTAG, IEEE 1687Since its introduction in the early 1990s, boundary scan, also known as JTAG or IEEE 1149, has become an essential tool used for testing boards in development, production and in the field.
Read More
Information

Using sleeves and heat shrink for electronics wiring

Most electronics constructional projects involve at least some degree of soldering and wiring. Many projects have a printed circuit board, PCB, forming most of the project, but it is necessary to connect the PCB to other controls and sockets, etc elsewhere within the final project. The connections that are made to many of these items will be exposed.
Read More