OFDM forms the basic signal format used within 4G LTE. OFDM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex is the basic format used and this is modified to provide the multiple access scheme: OFDMA, orthogonal frequency division multiple access in the downlink and SC-FDMA, single channel orthogonal frequency division multiple access in the uplink.
FPGA Includes:ASIC basicsApplication Specific Integrated Circuits or ASICs are, as the name indicates, non-standard integrated circuits that have been designed for a specific use or application. Generally an ASIC design will be undertaken for a product that will have a large production run, and the ASIC may contain a very large part of the electronics needed on a single integrated circuit.
STEM projects & activities includes:How to Build a Simple Burglar AlarmThis & 34;burglar alarm& 34; is a simple project that can be used for STEM and provide an afternoon of fun building it, and then many more hours catching the family out.Place the detector pad under a mat where you want to catch someone, and simply wait for them to come along and stand on the mat and they will be & 34;caught.
In view of the environmental fears about Nickel Cadmium batteries and cells, Nickel Metal Hydride technology has taken over.Nickel Metal Hydride, NiMH batteries and cells have a very similar level of performance - similar voltage and charge characteristics. As such they are virtually a direct replacement, although there are a few differences as can be imagined.
Flash memory technology is used for many forms of electronic data storage. Its convenience of use has meant that in recent years its use has increased significantly and it is available in many formats.Flash memory is a non-volatile form of electronic data storage and as a result it is used in many areas where short and medium term data storage is needed.
SDRAM, or Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory is a form of DRAM semiconductor memory can run at faster speeds than conventional DRAM.SDRAM memory is widely used in computers and other computing related technology. After SDRAM was introduced, further generations of double data rate RAM have entered the mass market – DDR which is also known as DDR1, DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4.
Wireless Battery Charging Includes:Wireless charging basicsQi wireless chargingA4WP wireless chargingBuy the best wireless chargerWireless battery charging is being used in many battery powered products like smartphones, smart watches and a host of other small electronic products.Initially aimed at smaller electronic products, wireless charging technology is also being used for larger items including vehicles and many other items as well.
E-Readers Includes:How to buy best e-readerE-readers are now commonplace, being seen in many places. They are ideal for people who enjoy reading, but do not want to carry around numbers of books and then have to recycle them when they have been read.With e-books now much cheaper than their paper counterparts most of the time, buying e-books makes a lot of sense.
WiMAX Wireless Broadband Technology Includes:Basics & introductionRF interfaceWiMAX frequenciesMAC layerNetwork architectureWiMAX technology is a wireless broadband communications technology based around the IEE 802.16 standard providing high speed data over a wide area.The letters of WiMAX stand for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (AXess), and it is a technology for point to multipoint wireless networking.
Z-Wave Tutorial Includes:Z-wave basicsThe concept of Z-Wave technology is that it uses a low-power RF radio circuitry which is embedded into home electronics devices and systems.Z-Wave technology is aimed at a number of wireless home automation areas including lighting, residential access control, entertainment systems and all forms of household appliances.
SD-WAN stands for Software Defined Wide Area Network, and it is a networking technology which is finding more popularity and use within the telecommunications industry.SD-WAN is a virtual WAN technology that allows enterprises to utilise and combine a variety of different transport services including MPLS, broadband services, mobile communications including 4G LTE and 5G, etc.
Wireless Meter Bus Includes:WHDI basicsPhysical layerThe Wireless Home Digital Interface has been set up to provide wireless connectivity for a wide selection of media centric devices like home televisions, recorders and audio devices including home cinemas and the like.With home multimedia devices becoming more sophisticated and many items like cameras requiring to connect easily, combined with the large level of unsightly wiring required for many home television systems, the concept of WHDI, Wireless Home Digital Interface is very attractive.
The RS449 serial data standard was intended as an enhancement to RS232. It was aimed at providing serial data transmission at speeds up to 2 Mbps whilst still being able to maintain compatibility with RS232.Though never applied on personal computers, this interface was found on some network communication equipment.
Digital Mobile Radio, DMR, is a new standard that has been developed by ETSI defining digital standard for PMR. PMR, an acronym for Professional, Personal, or Private mobile radio is recognised as the term covering radio communications other than mobile telephones.With the growing need to improve the efficiency of radio communications systems and add new facilities, the move to a digital system is of great importance.
Radio Receivers Tutorial Includes:Receiver typesTRF receiverCrystal radio setRegen receiverSuper-regenSuperheterodyne radioThe regenerative receiver, regen radio was a popular form of radio receiver in the 1920s and 1930s.As a result this form of radio deserves its place in this summary of the different types of radio available.
Radio Receiver Sensitivity Includes:Receiver sensitivity basicsSignal to noise ratioSINADNoise Figure, NFNoise floorReciprocal mixingThe sensitivity of a radio receiver determines the weakest signals that can be successfully receiver. Whether it is an audio signal for which the listening quality deteriorates as the signal falls into the noise, or a data signal where the bit error rate rises and throughput falls.
Although ham radio is primarily a pastime, amateur radio operators have often provided emergency communications when a disaster has struck somewhere. Ham radio operators are uniquely placed to be able to set up radio communications systems and they often have a variety of radio communications equipment and expertise that are not available anywhere else.
Ham radio bands summaries includes:Ham radio bands summaries136 kHz LF bandHF bandsVHF bandsUHF bandsThere is a good variety of ham bands or amateur radio allocations within the HF portion of the short wave spectrum. These ham radio bands or frequency allocations are open to radio hams around the world to use although the actual ham radio allocations do vary slightly from country to country and region to region.
Function Generators includes:Function generatorTypes of function generatorFunction generator specsSignal generator types:Signal Generator BasicsRF signal generator basicsArbitrary waveform generatorPulse generatorA function generator is a specific form of signal generator that is able to generate waveforms with common shapes.
Radio Receiver History Includes:Radio history / timelineRadio receiver historySuperhet radio historyEarly beginnings - It is impossible to say exactly where the story of radio starts. The early scientists who saw and investigated the effects of electricity and magnetism were crucial to the story. But a number of people also noticed effects that were probably caused by radio waves.
Codes & abbreviations includes:SummaryAbbreviationsRST codeQ codePhonetic alphabetWithin amateur radio, or ham radio as it is often called, a variety of abbreviations are used. These have developed over the years, partly as a result of the need to convey a particular word of meaning quickly and concisely.